150 Best Albums of 1980

Less than three weeks ago, Rolling Stone‘s website ran an 80 Greatest Albums of 1980 listicle, making the case that the first year of the 20th Century’s penultimate decade was “arguably, the greatest year for great albums ever.” Personally, “great” albums make me nervous — they’re just, y’know, intimidating or something. But when it comes to good ones, I’ll accept any year from 1978 to 1982 as the all-time best, and I doubt my opinion has changed since those years actually happened. So naturally, I decided not to look at the Rolling Stone list — at least until I came up with my own (albeit 150, not 80).

My list, as you may well have guessed by now, is below. I also looked up results of the Village Voice‘s 1980 Pazz & Jop poll, wherein 201 critics across the country voted way back then for favorites of the year. And boy do I ever have comparison statistics for you.

By my count, the top 80 spots of my top 150 share 24 albums with the RS list, with 14 more of the venerable magazine’s picks landing in my next 70. My top 40 meanwhile shares 13 with the P&J’s top 40 (that’s how deep the published list of winners went at the time), with another 8 Pazz finishers further down my tally (or 14 and 9, if you count Joan Jett and Joe Ely albums that later placed in the 1981 poll.) Titles snubbed by RS that show up on both my list and the Pazz one include collections by Iron City Houserockers, Professor Longhair, Arthur Blythe, the Specials, Lydia Lunch and (the only real surprise among these I’d say) the Gang of Four (has Entertainment! been disowned by generations younger than myself, or did they just forget it?)

More revealing, maybe, are certain albums that both RS and I list but which went nowhere in the real-time poll — by AOR stalwarts the J. Geils Band, Pat Benatar and Billy Joel, for instance, plus six metal-aligned albums whose P&J absence makes pretty clear how most rock critics felt about the genre at the time: Van Halen, Motörhead, Rush, AC/DC, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden. Those last three, I should admit, all just barely squeak into my 150’s bottom 10. Back In Black, let’s face it, has one all-time great song, another all-time great riff, a heck of a back story, and that’s about it. And neither Priest nor Maiden put any albums in the 500-best-metal-albums book I wrote three decades ago, so I’ll never hear the end of it. But fine, I’m finally willing to admit that they could both be really good almost as often as they could be really, really off-putting. So there.

The Stone list also includes post-Ozzy Sabbath and post-Sabbath Ozzy albums I’ll never care about. But my metal doesn’t end there — I list Rose Tattoo, two Angel City sets, Crack the Sky, Blue Öyster Cult, Def Leppard’s first and probably best, Shakin’ Street, Nantucket, Billy Squier, Heart, Prism, Girl, Nazareth and Manilla Road, not to mention borderline-metal new wavers Killing Joke, MX-80 Sound, 4 out of 5 Doctors, Roky Erikson, Cheap Trick, Fischer Z, Donnie Iris and the Fools plus metal pioneer mastering new wave Alice Cooper above several heavy alloys Stone and I have in common.

Black pop a/k/a r&b (“the term is returning to favor,” Robert Christgau had noted in 1979) also fare better on both my list and the Rolling Stone one than in Pazz & Jop, but not in the same way. Unless Professor Longhair’s mid-century-style New Orleans rhythm and blues counts, P&J had limited itself in 1980 to Prince’s gobsmacking breakthrough Dirty Mind (top 10 P&J, top five RS and CE) plus four Motown veterans: Stevie Wonder, Smokey Robinson, Diana Ross and 1979 holdover Michael Jackson. Those first three alumni place in the RS chart and Diana’s Chic LP makes mine too; I eventually decided Stevie’s Hotter Than July was too spotty a step down from his amazing ’70s run to demand inclusion. (Decided the same about Roxy Music’s, Steely Dan’s and Bob Seger’s 1980 output, for what it’s worth. Even came shockingly close with Bruce Springsteen’s, given how many of The River‘s drearier songs turn out to have anticipated Nebraska.)

Chic’s own Real People, a drastic commercial downturn neglected by critics upon release, placed on both my list and the RS one. So did Grace Jones’s new wave move, Donna Summer’s attempted AOR move, and Kurtis Blow’s rap breakthrough (only the second highest hip-hop on my countdown, after the six-song Sugarhill compilation at the very pinnacle.) But they’ve got Shalamar, Gap Band, Teddy Pendergrass, Chaka Khan (all sensible selections) while I’ve got, let’s see here: Change, the Jacksons, Maze, Skyy, Kid Creole and the Coconuts’ first and best if it counts, Teena Marie, Sheila and B. Devotion, Slave, Positive Force, One Way, L.T.D…..and that’s only the first half of my spreadsheet. Verdict: Pretty darn good year for Black pop (and I’ve barely if at all taken into account jazz, reggae, Eurodisco or blues, all of which make further appearances).

I should confess here that I did swap two albums onto my list after perusing Rolling Stone‘s, both by badass women on the verge of huge popularity fronting punk-adjacent hard rock bands. And those both have excellent excuses. Joan Jett and the Blackhearts’ debut LP was technically self-released and sold from their merch table and car trunks in 1980, but it wasn’t called Bad Reputation yet; I had originally slated it for 1981, the year Boardwalk Records renamed it. And technically, as far as I can tell, the Pretenders’ self-titled debut came out December 27, 1979; Robert Christgau grades it in his ’70s not ’80s guide, and it got three 1979 P&J votes. But I’m willing to classify both as 1980 if that’s what people think of them as now. So I bumped yellow-jacketed EPs by the Gang of Four (two ’79 B-sides backed with two imminent ’81 album tracks) and Pylon (which turns out not to have hit stores until February ’81 anyway) to make room for them.

More curious trivia: Though Elvis Costello and the Cure are represented on both Rolling Stone‘s list and mine, we included entirely different releases. Despite being compilations of singles and album tracks previously unavailable in the U.S., most of Taking Liberties and Boys Don’t Cry strike me as current enough circa 1980 not to necessitate relegating them to the reissue shelf; Get Happy!! and Seventeen Seconds are drags in comparison. And for some reason even their editors might not know, Rolling Stone used import cover artwork for albums by Joan Jett, Psychedelic Furs and Grace Jones. In fact Kory Grow even writes that “the only thing pretty in pink on the Psychedelic Furs’ debut is the album sleeve” when really, in the U.S. at least, the sleeve was extremely green instead! Sorry kids, but some of us are old enough to remember.

  1. The Great Rap Hits (Sugarhill) 
  2. Change The Glow of Love (Warner Bros./RFC)
  3. Public Image Ltd. Second Edition/Metal Box (Island) [RS 31, PJ 5]
  4. Prince Dirty Mind (Warner Bros.) [RS 3, PJ 9]
  5. Wanna Buy A Bridge? (Rough Trade UK) [RS 19]
  6. Iron City Houserockers Have a Good Time…But Get Out Alive (MCA) [PJ 30]
  7. The Brains The Brains (Mercury)
  8. Gino Soccio S-Beat (Warner Bros./RFC)
  9. Tantra The Double Album (Importe/12)
  10. The Clash London Calling (Epic) [RS 1, PJ 1]
  11. Talking Heads Remain In Light (Sire) [RS 2, PJ 3]
  12. Art Ensemble of Chicago Full Force (ECM)
  13. Rose Tattoo Rose Tattoo (Mirage)
  14. The Jacksons Triumph (Epic)
  15. Joan Jett & the Blackhearts Bad Reputation (Boardwalk) [RS 51, PJ 34 in 1981]
  16. Pearl Harbor and the Explosions Pearl Harbor and the Explosions (Warner Bros.)
  17. Angry Samoans Inside My Brain (Bad Trip EP)
  18. The Rolling Stones Emotional Rescue (Rolling Stones) [RS 32, PJ 20]
  19. Maze Joy and Pain (Capitol)
  20. Professor Longhair Crawfish Fiesta (Alligator) [PJ 31]
  21. Alice Cooper Flush the Fashion (Warner Bros.)
  22. Telex Neurovision (Sire)
  23. Skyy Skyway (Salsoul)
  24. Arthur Blythe Illusions (Columbia) [PJ 34]
  25. Chic Real People (Atlantic) [RS 15]
  26. Robert Ashley Perfect Lives/Private Parts: The Bar (Lovely)
  27. Gang of Four Entertainment! (Warner Bros.) [PJ 10]
  28. The Cure Boys Don’t Cry (PVC)
  29. The Pretenders The Pretenders (Sire) [RS 5, PJ 4]
  30. Killing Joke Killing Joke (Editions EG/Malicious Damage)
  31. Kid Creole and the Coconuts Off the Coast of Me (Ze/Antilles)
  32. The Mekons The Mekons/Devils Rats and Piggies (Red Rhino UK)
  33. X Los Angeles (Slash) [RS 6, PJ 16]
  34. Skafish Skafish (I.R.S.)
  35. Peter Gabriel Peter Gabriel III (Mercury) [RS 68, PJ 11]
  36. Alberta Hunter Amtrak Blues (Columbia)
  37. The Specials The Specials (Chrysalis) [PJ 32]
  38. Crack The Sky White Music  (Lifesong)
  39. The Psychedelic Furs The Psychedelic Furs (Columbia) [RS 59]
  40. The Fall Grotesque (After the Gramme) (Rough Trade) [RS 58]
  41. Richard and Linda Thompson Sunnyvista (Chrysalis UK)
  42. Van Halen Women and Children First (Warner Bros.) [RS 49]
  43. Shakin’ Street Shakin’ Street (Columbia)
  44. Angel City Face to Face (Epic)
  45. Teena Marie Lady T (Gordy)
  46. Warren Zevon Bad Luck Streak in Dancing School (Asylum)
  47. Grace Jones Warm Leatherette (Island) [RS 38]
  48. John Cougar Nothin’ Matters and What if it Did (Riva)
  49. The Jim Carroll Band Catholic Boy (Atco) [RS 77]
  50. Musik Laden: 20 Original Hits (Hansa Germany)
  51. The J. Geils Band Love Stinks (EMI America) [RS 53]
  52. Sheila and B. Devotion Sheila and B. Devotion (Carrere)
  53. MX-80 Sound Out of the Tunnel (Ralph)
  54. Joy Division Closer (Factory UK) [RS 10, PJ 22]
  55. Times Square (RSO)
  56. John Anderson John Anderson (Warner Bros.)
  57. Pop Group For How Much Longer Do We Tolerate Mass Murder? (Rough Trade/Y UK)
  58. The English Beat I Just Can’t Stop It (Sire) [RS 14, PJ 21]
  59. 4 out of 5 Doctors 4 out of 5 Doctors  (Nemperor)
  60. Devo Freedom of Choice (Warner Bros.) [RS 35]
  61. Kurtis Blow Kurtis Blow (Mercury) [RS 71]
  62. Slave Stone Jam (Cotillion)
  63. Jon Hassell/Brian Eno Fourth World Vol. 1: Possible Musics (Editions EG)
  64. The Police Zenyatta Mondatta (A&M) [RS 69, PJ 28]
  65. Positive Force Positive Force (Sugarhill)
  66. Roky Erikson and the Aliens Five Symbols/The Runes/Teo (CBS UK)
  67. Snopek First Band on the Moon (Mountain Railroad)
  68. One Way Who’s Foolin’ Who (MCA)
  69. The Clash Black Market Clash (Epic Nu-Disk)
  70. Human Sexual Response Figure 14 (Passport)
  71. Warren Zevon Stand in the Fire (Asylum)
  72. Cheap Trick All Shook Up (Epic)
  73. Blue Öyster Cult Cultösaurus Erectus (Columbia)
  74. David Bowie Scary Monsters (RCA Victor) [RS 7, PJ 19]
  75. Joe Ely Live Shots (MCA) [PJ 28 in 1981]
  76. L.T.D. Shine On (A&M)
  77. John Hiatt Two Bit Monsters (MCA)
  78. Angel City Darkroom (Epic)
  79. Fischer Z Going Deaf for a Living (United Artists)
  80. Def Leppard On Through the Night (Mercury)
  81. Captain Beefheart and the Magic Band Doc At the Radar Station (Virgin) [RS 42, PJ 6]
  82. D.C. Larue Star Baby (Casablanca)
  83. Rod Shake It Up: Do the Boogaloo (Prelude)
  84. Joe Dolce Shaddap You Face (MCA)
  85. Donna Summer The Wanderer (Geffen) [RS 46]
  86. Nantucket Long Way to the Top (Epic)
  87. Red Cross Red Cross (Posh Boy EP)
  88. Diana Ross Diana (Motown) [RS 9, PJ 39]
  89. Billy Squier The Tale of the Tape (Capitol)
  90. Pink Military Do Animals Believe In God? (Eric’s)
  91. Heart Bebe Le Strange (Epic)
  92. Cepillon Rock Infantil (Orfeon Mexico)
  93. Fatback Hot Box (Spring)
  94. Circle Jerks Group Sex (Frontier EP)
  95. Tonio K Amerika (Arista)
  96. Ian Lloyd 3WC (Scotti Brothers)
  97. Visage Visage (Polydor)
  98. Donnie Iris Back on the Streets (MCA)
  99. Cabaret Voltaire The Voice of America  (Rough Trade UK)
  100. Willy Williams & the Armagedions Messenger Man (Jah Music Jamaica)
  101. Vaughan Mason and Crew Bounce, Rock, Skate, Roll (Brunswick)
  102. Modernettes Teen City (Quintessence Canada EP)
  103. Bus Boys Minimum Wage Rock & Roll (Arista)
  104. Lydia Lunch Queen of Siam  (Ze) [PJ 29]
  105. Prism Young and Restless (Capitol)
  106. Elvis Costello Taking Liberties (Columbia)
  107. Gibson Brothers On the Riviera (Island)
  108. T.S. Monk House of Music (Mirage)
  109. Rush Permanent Waves (Mercury) [RS 39]
  110. Swell Maps In Jane From Occupied Europe (Rather/Rough Trade UK) [RS 50]
  111. Late Bronze Age Outside Looking In (Landslide)
  112. Rachel Sweet Protect the Innocent (Stiff/Columbia)
  113. .Joe Jackson Beat Crazy (A&M)
  114. Michael Hurley Snockgrass (Rounder)
  115. Motörhead Ace of Spades (Bronze/Mercury) [RS 12]
  116. Ramones End of the Century (Sire)
  117. The Fools Sold Out (EMI America)
  118. Ultravox Vienna (Chrysalis)
  119. The B-52s Wild Planet (Warner Bros.) [RS 21]
  120. Brian Briggs Brian Damage (Bearsville)
  121. Echo and the Bunnymen Crocodiles (Sire) [RS 72]
  122. Robert Palmer Clues (Island)
  123. Mi-Sex Computer Games (Epic)
  124. The Roches Nurds (Warner Bros.)
  125. Girl Sheer Greed (Jet)
  126. Joe “King” Carrasco and the Crowns Joe “King” Carrasco and the Crowns (Hannibal)
  127. Nazareth Malice In Wonderland (A&M)
  128. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Reactor (Official)
  129. Shaun Cassidy Wasp (Warner Bros.)
  130. Manilla Road Invasion (Roadster)
  131. The Kings Are Here (Elektra)
  132. Young Canadians Hawaii (Quintessence Canada EP)
  133. Oi! The Album (EMI UK)
  134. Sue Saad and the Next Sue Saad and the Next (Planet)
  135. Pat Benatar Crimes of Passion (Chrysalis) [RS 54]
  136. Bruce Springsteen The River (Columbia) [RS 8, PJ 2]
  137. Nervus Rex Nervus Rex (Dreamland)
  138. Metal Boys featuring China Tokio Airport (Celluloid France)
  139. 3-D 3-D (Polydor)
  140. Rick Springfield Working Class Dog (RCA)
  141. Billy Joel Glass Houses (Columbia) [RS 37]
  142. Klark Kent Klark Kent (I.R.S. EP)
  143. Gikan Sa W.T.T. Band Disco Wa’y Tihik-Tihik (WEA Phillipines)
  144. Rema-Rema Wheel in the Roses (4AD UK EP)
  145. AC/DC Back in Black (Atlantic) [RS 4]
  146. Shnazz Shnazz (Shadow Record Co.)
  147. Black Uhuru Sinsemilla (Mango) [RS 29]
  148. Judas Priest British Steel (Columbia) [RS 18]
  149. Iron Maiden Iron Maiden (Harvest) [RS 41]
  150. Peter Janovsky Winners & Losers: Campaign Songs from the Critical Elections in American History Volume 2—1896-1976 (Folkways)


  1. Via facebook:

    Steve Pick
    Sue Saad and the Next! I think that was the last record I ever bought because they looked New Wave, and turned out to not sound anything like what I liked at the time. Taught me a valuable lesson back when I had very little money to spare for record purchases and hadn’t learned yet that record companies would send free copies to writers.

    Chuck Eddy
    Wrote about that album (and others here — Brains, Fools, 4 out of 5 Doctors) in my Fake New Wave roundup for Spin several years back. Can’t find it via Google anymore, but it’s definitely included in Terminated for Reasons of Taste.

    Steve Pick
    It’s entirely possible we talked about Sue Saad on FB before, maybe when your book came out?


  2. via facebook:

    Steve Pick
    Otherwise, your top 10 is interesting. I don’t even know which songs are on that Sugarhill comp, but I do know that in 1980, Sugarhill 12 inches were among the most exciting music you could find. Why have I never actually listened to Change? By all accounts, they ought to be right up my alley. PiL’s record strikes me the way AC/DC’s strikes you – one indisputably great song – Poptones – and a couple okay ones with a lot of stuff I never remember after it’s over. I do remember seeing them on American Bandstand when that album was new – the single weirdest thing I ever saw associated with Dick Clark, who was afraid to go up and interview them between songs. Prince – no argument, he would go into any top ten. I’m not sure what’s on the Rough Trade comp, and Iron City Houserockers never did it for me, though it’s been a zillion years since I’ve heard them. I did used to love that Brains album, but haven’t played it in decades – I can’t remember the songs Cyndi Lauper didn’t cover. Gino Soccio and Tantra are unknowns to me. The Clash would have been my number one album that year – I thought sure that came out at the end of December 1979 like the Pretenders did. Me, I’d put Get Happy up in the top ten for sure – Taking Liberties is an absolute classic of listenability, but I had 90% of those songs on import singles, because I was that kind of fan.

    Steve Pick
    I think of the next 140 on your list, 41 have meant much to me at one time or another, and maybe another dozen have been in my ears without knocking me out. I was listening to r&b radio all the time, so I know singles way better than albums from the early 80s. I’m slowly trying to rectify that.

    Chuck Eddy
    LOTS of the r&b albums on my list are just a great single or two plus filler, to be honest. But even in those cases, the overall groove manages to get me through.

    Chuck Eddy
    I played Get Happy last week, and kept drawing blanks from it, song after song. Hadn’t heard it in eons, and was surprised how much it bored me. (Didn’t love or hate it when it came out, but at least found it tolerable then.) Gino Soccio and Tantra are Eurodisco LPs. London Calling came out in ’79 in the UK I believe (as did Sandinista! in ’80), but I’m fine going with the US release date with that one, especially since it blew away P&J in ’80 (and Sandinista! won in ’81) and it still regularly winds up on the top of ’80s surveys. Can’t promise I’ll always be consistent with cusp-year albums; at some point, I just have to go with my gut.


  3. via facebook (re Get Happy!!)

    David Williams
    The best song (Girls Talk) isn’t on the album, leaving New Amsterdam (track 9, sounding thin on vinyl!) the only winning song for me.

    Chuck Eddy
    I do like “New Amsterdam.”

    David Williams
    “Everything you say sounds like it’s ghostwritten” is one of his best japes

    Chuck Eddy
    Also waltz oompahs (or whatever that rhythm is) serve him well.

    David Williams
    3/4, yep

    David Williams
    “This album was inspired by the r&b I love”
    𝙱𝚎𝚜𝚝 𝚜𝚘𝚗𝚐 𝚒𝚜 𝚊 𝚠𝚊𝚕𝚝𝚣

    Chuck Eddy
    EXACTLY. Always tripped my cognitive dissonance wire.

    David Williams
    It also stands out sonically because it’s a demo he recorded by himself- he didn’t like the feel when they tried on the album sessions. (I think the band version was on a bonus disc eventually?)
    ·But Girls Talk: an amazing amount of space, somehow in 1:57–


  4. via email:

    Frank Kogan
    “has Entertainment! been disowned by generations younger than myself, or did they just forget it?”
    Wikipedia has the UK release date as 25 September 1979. Wikip doesn’t provide an American release date, but Discogs lists the US version and says “Warner Bros. Records M5 3446 1979.”
    I bought the import versions of Metal Box and London Calling the minute they came out and therefore have always thought of them as 1979 albums (and mostly only liked London Calling, Brand New Cadillac, and Guns Of Brixton on the latter anyway, though under the “All Albums Are EPs Rule” I suppose that gets it by). Interestingly for ‘79-‘80 I actually still have it in my mind what year something was, while regarding years since then (esp. once I started voting myself and ignoring release dates with impunity) I pretty much don’t care.

    Chuck Eddy
    Yeah, hmmm. I notice Rolling Stone themselves listed Entertainment!’s release date as 1979 too, in their 500 Greatest Albums of All Time from last year (which I was asked to vote in but didn’t, for what it’s worth.) So clearly that’s why it’s not among their 1980 Top 80. But I’m still skeptical. If it actually came out in September ’79 in the States, I have trouble believing it would have received ZERO Pazz and Jop votes in 1979. (I.e., unlike The Pretenders, Off the Wall and The Wall, no votes for it carried over to the 1980 poll.) A UK release date I’ll buy — imports were still off-limits in the 1979 poll, which explains why London Calling and Metal Box also wouldn’t have carried over any 1979 votes to 1980. (Insert something here about how release dates may well have been way more fuzzy in 1979/’80 than they are now, and perhaps some eager-beaver stateside record stores put albums on shelves before they were officially “released”. But I have no idea if that’s actually true. I do tend to take both discogs and Wikipedia release dates with a shaker of salt; in both cases, I’ve noticed multiple instances of year-of-recording being confused with year-of-releasing. Not that I know of any more reliable source.)
    On the other hand, here’s how analog record guides on my bookshelf list Entertainment!’s release date:
    The New Rolling Stone Record Guide (blue edition, 1983): 1979
    The New Trouser Press Record Guide, Second Edition (1985): 1979
    Christgau’s Consumer Guide (1990): 1980 (it’s in his ’80s guide, not his ’70s one — unlike The Pretenders)
    Spin Alternative Record Guide (1995): 1979
    The Trouser Press Record Guide To ’90s Rock (1997): 1979
    That’s more conclusive than I would have predicted, actually. But who knows?
    Aaaaaaand….”At Home He’s a Tourist”/”It’s Her Factory” did receive 10 Pazz & Jop singles votes in 1979 (when import singles were allowed but import albums weren’t.) So Gof4 at least had some degree of U.S. critic following at that point.
    Similarly, The Specials’ “Gangsters” got 15 singles votes as a 1979 import, but The Specials’ debut album apparently got no votes in 1979. (Rolling Stone may consider The Specials a 1979 album as well; hence its absence from their 1980 list. Or maybe they just don’t like it enough.)

    Frank Kogan
    There might have even been a hard December cut-off date (say December 8 or something) in early P&J, where if a record came out *after* that date it had to wait till the next year. I don’t remember, and I wasn’t on the list then, obviously and Christgau rarely mentioned dates and stuff to the public. I don’t know when he went to year-of-impact-however-you-define-it, which is the only sane way to do an end-of-year poll, but retrospective lists and polls are different.

    Chuck Eddy
    1980 was the first time Pazz & Jop allowed voters to reach back to the previous year for votes — The first time votes were carried over, the first time “year of impact” was a thing. (At least intentionally, that is — No doubt voters, including Christgau himself, now and then inadvertently or covertly listed albums from previous years.) I’m fairly certain there was never an early December cut-off date — At least, Christgau never mentioned it, not to me in person or in any of his P&J essays. Don’t think it would have made sense, since I’m pretty sure that even in the early years the poll was never published before late January. 1979 poll ran in the January 28, 1980 issue; 1980 poll ran in the February 4, 1981 issue.


  5. For example, from Christgau’s 1978 poll essay: “Saturday Night Fever (which broke — broke the ice, broke records, broke the bank — in 1978 but is ineligible because it was released in 1977).” And later: “Dave Marsh, who would have listed Saturday Night Fever and Earth, Wind & Fire’s All ’n All had they not been released in 1977, ”

    From his 1980 poll essay: “This year both imports and ‘late-breaking’ 1979 LPs were eligible, a change that had worked well when we introduced singles balloting in the previous poll. As a result, Michael Jackson’s Off the Wall appears in our top 40 for the second time, Pink Floyd’s The Wall sneaks in for the first, and two imports — Joy Division’s Closer and Young Marble Giants’ Colossal Youth — also make the list.” (He doesn’t list the Pretenders, who according to the chart carried over 26 points from three 1979 voters, but he does affix a “’79” to their label in his personal list. He doesn’t affix “’79” to the Gang of Four’s label.)


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